Richard III

Battle of Bosworth.

*Battle of Bosworth*


Richard III
Lancaster's Reign
War of The Roses
The King Maker
Death of Edward IV
Richard, Duke of Gloucester
Richard: Protector
Buckingham's Revolt
Battle of Bosworth
Discovery of Skeleton of Richard III

Since I did this section, it has been discovered that the Battle of Bosworth was not in this exact location, hence the last photos are also incorrect. As there is little chance I will get back to Yorkshire, I will keep this page. Please keep in mind however that the battle tactics would still be similar. The new information is at the bottom of this page.

Richard was notified on 11th August 1485, whilst in Nottingham, that Henry Tudor had landed at Milford Haven in the county of Pembroke. He was marching through Wales, into England enlisting the aid of mercenary Welshmen and traitorous Englishmen.

Richard left for Leicester and then headed to Sutton Cheney, where he found his ideal battle position.

Tudor arrived at Atherstone and then set out for Redmore Plain.

The King's Camp.

Prior to the battle, Richard's army camped at Ambien Hill which overlooked this plain,(later known as Bosworth Field). Tudor was three miles away.

On the morning of the battle, both leaders sent a summons to Lord Stanley's troups. To Tudor he replied: "When the time is ripe." To Richard, he replied, after hearing his son Lord Strange was a hostage: "I have other sons."

The White Boar Standard of Richard III.Richard set up his Standard, a pennant of "The White Boar" on the narrow hill top. The Rearguard of the Duke of Northumberland's men grouped on the lower ground whilst the Vanguard commanded by the Duke of Norfolk, settled on front-lines. The archers crouched in front of the ranks, the men-at-arms would arrive mounted but fight on foot along with the harquebusiers, accompanied by the field cannon.

Tudor's army arrived with the Earl of Oxford commanding the Vanguard. The wings were commandered by Sir Gilbert Talbot and John Savage. Tudor remained at the rear of his army, his Standard, "The Red Dragon" flying above him. He was surrounded by a small army of footmen and a single troop of horse.

The two armies could well be described as the English under their King, Richard III, versus French and Welsh mercenaries and English traitors.

The Battleground.

The battle began with the movement of Tudor to the base of Ambien Hill. Richard rode forth at the head of his army. Each force was now in formation. Richard gave the order to attack. Tudor's troops reached the lower slopes and began to climb within the range of Norfolk's arrows. Trumpets sounded and the Vanguard charged down the hill. There was an intense struggle and Norfolk was down. Northumberland refused to bring up the rearguard, in case there was a possible move by Lord Stanley. However, both of these so-called respected allies had now decided to give allegiance to the victor. The battle waged on and suddenly, Richard came to a decision. This was between him and Tudor.

Who lived, reigned!

He rode forth towards the Red Dragon banner of Tudor, screened by a small rear guard, down the northwestern slope of Ambien Hill and thundered out onto the plain. Stanley, then declared for Tudor and met with Richard's rearguard. There was much confusion as to who was fighting who.

Richard continued to ride towards Tudor, striking out with his sword and spear. When his horse went down under him, he stood forth and swung his battle axe through the enemy, some killed, others deserting. He split the head of Tudor's Standard bearer; Tudor himself moving back behind his men. Richard must have become very close to the Pretender, however Sir William Stanley's men surrounded him and he was murdered, fighting bravely which has been well documented until his last breath. The crown that rolled off his head was collected by Stanley and placed on Tudor's head.

Memorial in Leicester Cathedral.

There is much more to add. What was done to his body, the humiliating ride into Leicester and although his remains were finally buried in the chapel of the Grey Friars, his bones supposedly were dug up and thrown into the River Soar. I don't want to go into those sordid details. However, finally in recent years a Memorial to Richard III was put in the Chancel of Leicester Cathedral.

Memorial at Bosworth for Richard III.

There is a memorial built at the place where it is believed Richard was killed.*

White Roses.

Closer, you can see the white roses that are left there by Richard's supporters.

And I have been there too.

* * *

*Addit: This stone was originally erected in a field near Shenton Village in 1974, as that was thought to be the site of Sandeford, where Richard III is said to have died during the Battle of Bosworth on the 22nd August 1485.

In 2009, after several years of careful study and extensive fieldwork, the true site of the battle was discovered in the area around Mill Lane and the Fenn Lane Roman road. The likely site of Sandeford, close to a proven medieval marsh and the findspot of the Bosworth Boar badge, is on private land 2.5km to the south west of Ambion Hill, in the ancient parish of Dadlington.

The stone has been moved to the Battle Centre to allow better and safer public access to it and to allow the field at Shenton to be returned to its former agricultural use.